Tilapia is the common name for nearly a hundred species of cichlid fish
from the tilapiine cichlid tribe. Tilapia are mainly freshwater fish
inhabitating shallow streams, ponds, rivers and lakes. Historically, they have
been of major importance in artisan fishing in Africa and the Middle East, and
they are of increasing importance in aquaculture and aquaponics. Tilapia is both
the common and scientific name for a group of amazing fish native to Africa.
From a culture point of view, they are very tolerant of a wide variety of
conditions. Different species of tilapia, each with its own advantages and
shortcomings, can be easily interbred to create designer hybrids. The fish that
are available in food stores are almost always hybrids that are breed because of
their higher growth rate. The tilapia, as a group, are now probably the most
frequently cultured aquatic species in the world. Tilapia is an important source
of protein, especially in developing countries, and is a good candidate for
farming. The aquaculture of tilapia is a nutritious and healthy part of a
balanced diet that is high in protein, low in fat and substitutes well in any
Tilapia In Ponds
The traditional way of raising tilapia is in outdoor ponds. Tilapia ponds
are usually not stocked as densely as cages and tanks, to allow the tilapia a
more natural way of life where they can utilize naturally available sources of
food. They will also reproduce naturally. If you are concerned with over
crowding, it is recommended to stock with males only. When you are ready to
harvest the best combination is seining and draining the pond. Tilapia in ponds
is also a great way to control aquatic weeds. Most tilapia farms use shallow
ponds since they are easier to train when its time to harvest. The recommend
water temperature for most types of tilapia is 82-86 degrees F if you want a
growth rate to be as fast as possible. If the water temperature drops below 68
degrees F it will result in a significantly lower growth rate. At 50 degrees F,
the fish will start dying. Tilapia can be raised in ponds together with one or
several other animal species.
Tank Culture if Tilapia
The practice of using tank or cages instead of ponds is a 20th century
invention. Tank culture of tilapia is quite common in regions where suitable
land for tilapia cultivation is scarce or there is a shortage of water. Compared
to pond farming of tilapia the stocking density is usually very high in tanks.
It is usually easier and less labour intensive to harvest tilapia from tanks
instead of ponds. The environmental inside of a tank is easier to control than
and outdoor pond. This is due to a long range on environmental factors,
including water temperature, oxygen content and PH value. Pumps and aeration
will be required to control the environment in a tilapia tank. A flow-through
system will rely on constant access to new, fresh water while a recirculaion
system or re circulating system clean the used water and reuse it over and over
again. The recommended water temperature for most tilapia species is 82-86
degrees F for optimal growth. If the temperature drops below 50 degrees F you
will see a dramatic decline in growth rate, and possibly loss.
How to sex Tilapia
Unfortunately, tilapia can not be sexed as easily as you would think, as
there are no obvious external differences between male and female tilapia.
Tilapia can usually be sexed once they reach 1 ounce. The wat to do this is to
look at the genital papilla located behind the anus of the fish. If it has one
opening it is a male tilapia. This one hole is used to pass both urine and milt.
If there are two holes it is a female. The females use one hold to pass urine
and the other to lay eggs.
Breeding tilapia is easy. The biggest obstacle to breeding tilapia us
usually get a suitable pair. The easiest and cheapest method is to get a group
of juveniles and allow them to grow up together, forming pairs themselves as
they reach sexually maturity. Once you have an established pair you can remove
the others from the tank or move the breeding pair to another tank. It is not
recommended to keep the breeding pair with the other tilapia unless the aquarium
is very big due to the aggression these fish show during breeding. They will
claim a territory and protect their offspring by any means necessary. Another
option is to buy and established breeding pair. Once you have a pair they are
not hard to breed if you provide them with a suitable environment and a
nutritious diet. Tilapia are egg layers. They spawn on an open surface. Tilapia
are usually good parents that carefully clean an area they plan to deposit their
eggs on. The female places a few eggs on the substrate and the male immediately
fertilizes them. This procedure is repeated until all eggs are deposited. A
single spawning can result in a large number of eggs and fry.
Last but not least, some states have banned certain types of tilapia so
make sure you check local regulations before you make a purchase.